Heat Pump News
Alok Sharma – President UN COP26
Boris Johnson appoints Alok Sharma – President COP26 for UN Climate Change summit in Glasgow in November 2021.
CCC advice on Sixth Carbon Budget
The GSHPA is pleased to welcome the Climate Change Committee's advice to Government on the
Sixth Carbon Budget published 9 December 2020.
Boris Johnson's "Green Industrial Revolution"
The GSHPA is pleased to welcome the
PM's Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution on 17 November 2020.
UK lags Europe in use of heat pumps
The UK has been slow to adopt heat pumps due to the high taxes of electricity in the UK. See Heat pump use in Europe.
GSHPA appoints new Chairman
At the Council meeting on 21 October the GSHPA elected a New Chairman and a New Vice-Chairman.
Three Phase electric supply to homes
Some electric power distribution companies have decided to standardise on three phase service cables to new domestic properties. This infrastructure upgrade will help the transition toward using heat pumps to decarbonise domestic heating.
Public supports carbon reduction policies
BEIS has published a paper following consumer research which reveals that the public supports carbon reduction policies. Will BEIS tell the Treasury?
Public Sector Decarbonisation Scheme
BEIS introduces a Public Sector Decarbonisation Scheme to allow local authorities up to a 100% grant for spending on heat pumps to decarbonise heating in non-domestic buildings.
Green Homes Grant
BEIS introduces a Green Homes Grant to allow householders a two thirds grant for spending on heat pumps up to a capped grant of £5,000.
DCF Carbon Factor declines again
Government has published its revised greenhouse gas conversion factor for reporting grid electricity as 233gCO2e/kWhr for 2020. This is a reduction of 9% on the 256gCO2e/kWhr for 2019. Grid carbon factors have fallen sharply since 2014 and the decline is projected by BEIS to decline down to 41gCO2e/kWhr by 2035. However, this official figure of 233 to be used for reporting lags behind as it is set by historical readings.
Covid Silver Lining
A silver lining has appeared from the Covid crisis in terms of reduced deaths from air pollution: Covid-19 Silver Lining.
CCC writes to PM
The Committee on Climate Change has written a letter to the Prime Minister on 6 May to encourage the Government to use climate change policy to help the nation recover from the coronavirus emergency.
GSHPA lobbies Government
The GSHPA and the HPF have requested Government to extend the deadline for Non-Domestc RHI by a year from 31 March 2021 to accommodate delays caused by Coronavirus restrictions: COVID Commissioning delays.
Government Support - Coronavirus
MCS Register of installers for Emergency Callouts
MCS is aiming to create a register of those installers who are able to respond to emergency callouts to fix renewable energy systems. See Emergency Repair Work Register. Please contact MCS Helpdesk Team on 0333 103 8130 if you would like to be included.
Absolute Zero Report
CCC writes to PM
The Committee on Climate Change has written a powerful letter to the Prime Minister on 18 December to emphasise the urgency of the UK coordinating action to reduce climate change ahead of the UN Climate Summit in Glasgow.
What is "Possible"?
Possible is a charity that proposes that the heat absorbed by the ground in public parks in summer should be transferred to buildings in winter using ground source heat pumps.
The SEA plans to hold Boris's feet to the fire
Lesley Rudd of the Sustainable Energy Association plans to hold the Government's feet to the fire on its green pledges made during the general election.
Electrification of Heat Demonstration Project
BEIS has announced its Electrification of Heat Demonstration Project to raise acceptance and support wider deployment of heat pumps in Great Britain. £16.5m will be made available to demonstrate the practical and technical feasibility of heat pumps.
Roadmap for the Role of Heat Pumps
This new Roadmap for Heat Pumps report, written by Ecuity under the supervision of the HPA, highlights the role that heat pumps can play in the decarbonisation of heating.
Heating Installers Have their Say
Heating installers have responded to the survey organised by industry members trade associations, including the GSHPA. See the results of the survey.
"Our house is on fire"
Greta Thunberg speaks at the World Economic Forum in Davos and says "Our house is on fire", it is time for action, we do need to panic.
The Chancellor bans fossil fuels for heating
The Chancellor bans the use of fossil fuels for heating in new homes from 2025.
Net Zero by 2050
The Climate Change Committee recommends a new target for the UK: Net Zero carbon emissions by 2050.
The Prime Minister agrees to Net Zero carbon emissions by 2050.
Low Carbon Homes Forum
The GSHPA is joining forces with the HPA to speak at the Low Carbon Homes Forum ar Queen Elizabeth School, Blandford Road, Wimborne Minster in Ipswich on 23 May. Low carbon homes are now achievable: the answer is to stop burning gas and use heat transfer instead.
The Engineer's Collaborate to Innovate Awards
The Balanced Energy Network won the Energy and Environment category in The Engineer's Collaborate to Innovate Award on 6 November 2018 for its Fifth Generation District Heat Network. The winning consortium, led by ICAX, included London South Bank University, Upside Energy, Mixergy, TFGI, Origen Power and Cranfield University.
The award ceremony was on 6 November at St Bart's Brewery, Smithfield, London EC1.
EA permit fees rise dramatically
The Environment Agency has raised its permit fees dramatically: Environment Agency Permit Fees.
Heat Pumps in London
The GLA has commissioned a study into the implications of a widespread uptake of heat pumps in London's new developments, driven by the decarbonisation of the electricity grid: Heat Pumps in London.
PAC reports on the RHI
The Public Accounts Committee published its critical Report on the RHI on 16 May 2018.
National Audit Office reports on RHI
The NAO report published on 23 February 2018 finds that take-up of the RHI scheme has been "much lower than originally anticipated".
Some 80,000 installations have been delivered by the RHI by December 2017. At current rates of take-up, the NAO estimates the RHI will achieve around 111,000 new installations by March 2021, just 22% of the original target of 513,000 by this date.
The NAO said the government needed to increase renewable heating rates in order to meet statutory carbon targets.
Clean Air Strategy
DERFA has published its Clean Air Strategy with the aim of reducing air pollution from combustion.
CO2 Concentration hits 403.3 ppm
The average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere rose to 403.3 parts per million in 2016, up from 400 ppm in 2015. This is the highest level seen for over 800,000 years according to the World Meteorological Organization. See BBC report.
Carbon Calculator and GridWatch
The GridWatch website shows you where UK's electricity is currently generated from.
The GSHPA CO2 emissions calculator shows how much lower carbon emissions are form GSHP heating systems than from combustion-based heating systems for each kilowatt hour of heat delivered.
Clean Growth Strategy
BEIS has published its long awaited Clean Growth Plan as a Clean Growth Strategy
GSHPA welcomes RHI Consultation Response
GSHPA welcomes the publication of the RHI Consultation reponse on 14 December 2016, although we are disappointed to see the introduction of capping of RHI for large domestic properties as these have the largest potential to save carbon emissions.
RHI Biomass rates fall again
On 30 November BEIS announced a further 5% decrease in RHI for new small biomass commercial installations to 3.10p from 1 January 2017. See Biomass degressions.
Committee on Climate Change urges Government action on reducing climate change
The Committee on Climate Change published its report on "Next Steps for UK Heat Policy" on 13 October 2016. It is urging full hearted support for heat pumps and also for the Government to consider the conversion of the gas grid away from natural gas towards distributing hydrogen and a massive investment in Carbon Capture and Storage.
Professor Sir David MacKay
Members will be very sorry to hear of the death of Sir David MacKay on 14 April 2015 at the age of 48.
His book Sustainable Energy - without the hot air did a great deal
to explain the need for sustainable heating and his analysis was profound. Amongst his many memorable quotes:
"For forest-dwellers, there's wood. For everyone else, there's heat pumps".
"A useful technology will surely be long-term thermal storage".
"I believe we should leapfrog over gas-powered combined heat and power and go directly for heat pumps."
RHI Biomass rates fall again
On 31 May DECC announced a further decrease in RHI for new small biomass commercial installations to 3.26p from 1 July 2016. See Biomass degressions.
Heat Pumps in District Heating
DECC has published Heat Pumps in District Heating, a report which recognises the value of using heat pumps in District Heating in place of gas boilers and gas-based CHP to lower carbon emissions.
Sir David MacKay
David MacKay received a knighthood in the New Years Honours List 2016 "for services to Scientific Advice in Government and Science Outreach". See Sustainable Energy - without the hot air.
Paris Agreement limits Climate Change
On 12 December at the United Nations Conference nearly 200 countries came together in Paris and agreed that carbon emissions should be reduced with the aim of limiting the increase of temperatures to 1.5°C above the temperature of pre-industrial times. See Paris Agreement. This is good news for the world - and will be good news for members of the GSHPA if DECC takes genuine steps to limit carbon emissions from heating.
Does DECC yet recognise that Ground Source Energy and recycling heat through the ground is the surest route to saving energy and reducing carbon emissions from heating? How will DECC respond to this new challenge?
RHI Biomass rates fall again
On 30 November DECC announced a further decrease in RHI for new small biomass commercial installations to 3.76p - and a further fall in domestic RHI tariffs to 5.14p, both from 1 January 2016. See Biomass degressions.
Importance of Strategic Heat Policy
The GSHPA, along with other trade associations, has written to Amber Rudd to encourage her support for the RHI ahead of the Comprehensive Spending Review: Importance of Strategic Heat Policy.
Reduced rate VAT – Warning – EU Judgement of 4 June 2015
An EU court ruling of 4 June 2015 states that the UK cannot apply reduced rate VAT to the supply and installation of energy savings materials – except in the case of social housing. See: Reduced rate VAT for more information and the likely implications for an increase in the rate of Vat from 5% to 20% for installation of energy saving materials in 2016.
GSHPA responds to Select Committee
The GSHPA has responded to the call for evidence on the RHI from the Commons Select Committee on Energy and Climate Change. See GSHPA responds to Select Committee
DECC responds to the consultation
DECC responds to the consultation returns on "Renewable Heat Incentive: providing certainty, improving performance" on the non-domestic RHI and at the same time confirms that RHI tariffs for non-domestic RHI are being reviewed and the anticipated changes will be backdated to 21 January 2013.
Solar Roads Systems for cycle tracks
The Dutch are planning to make their cycle lanes ice-free by using ground source energy: warm roads melt ice.
Confirmation on Reduced Rate Vat at 5% for GSHP residential installations
Following correspondence with the GSHPA after enquiries from one of its members, HMRC confirmed on 4 January 2013 that it is in agreement with the wording on the GSHPA's page on Reduced Rate Vat.
BGS sharpens its tools
The British Geological Survey has developed an open loop screening tool in conjunction with the Environment Agency to assess whether your postcode is likely to sitting above a suitable aquifer for a large open loop GSHP system. You can find explanations, and the new tool itself, on the GSHP page of the BGS website.
BGS contributes to ThermoMap
The British Geological Survey is the UK member of the EC co-funded ThermoMap project which focuses on the mapping of very shallow geothermal energy potentials in Europe.
The ThermoMap does not aim to inform about the geology of your area for the purposes of drilling a borehole for ground source energy. However, you can go directly to BGS for this information.
Price of gas soars
On 8 June 2011 Scottish Power announced a 19% increase in the price of gas from 1 August.
On 8 July 2011 British Gas, owned by Centrica, announced it is putting up its domestic gas prices by 18% and electricity prices by 16% from 18 August. This follows a 7% increase in both gas and electricity in December 2010.
On 21 July 2011 Scottish & Southern announced a 18% increase in the price of gas from 14 September, on top of a 9% increase in gas in December 2010.
As this is attributable to increases in the wholesale price of gas, increases from other suppliers seem inevitable. With inflation running at 4.5%, why is this occurring? What is the background?
- World demand for gas increased by 7.4% last year - the largest annual increase ever.
- An increasing world population, enjoying increasing wealth, is demanding more gas.
- Gas is used for heating, industrial purposes, and generating electricity at power stations.
- The nuclear meltdown at Fukushima following the Japanese earthquake and tsunami on 10 March 2011 has raised safety questions over generating electricity from nuclear plants.
- Since Fukushima, Germany and Switzerland have announced that they will phase out their nuclear power stations. Electric power generation using gas is the obvious alternative.
- Italy, in a referendum on 12 June 2011, has overwhelmingly rejected generating electricity with nuclear power.
- Britain's new generation of nuclear power stations are likely to be delayed in the wake of the nuclear meltdown at Fukushima.
- The retail price of gas has risen 233% since 2004.
- The price of gas in the UK has historicaly been low because of the supply from the North Sea and a well developed distribution system of piped gas to nearly all houses in urban areas.
What will happen to the price of gas in future?
The price of gas has risen in the past, is rising now and is likely to continue rising in the future. The increase in world population will put increasing pressure of demand on gas - and other natural resources. The price of electricity tends to rise in line with the cost of gas.
What is the alternative to using gas for heating?
A ground source heat pump provides gas-free heating.
COP26 UN Climate Change Talks
COP26, which was due to take place in November 2020 in Glasgow, has been postponed to November 2021. UN Climate Change Executive Secretary, Patricia Espinosa, underscored that while COVID-19 is "the most urgent threat facing humanity today ... we cannot forget that climate change is the biggest threat facing humanity over the long term".
Grid Carbon Factors fall steeply
Grid Carbon Intensity has fallen by half since 2014 and BEIS projects continuing falls into the future:
GSHPA website visits rise on Ten Point Plan
This website now receiving over 10,200 visits a month as interest in heat pumps grow following the government announcement of the Green Industrial Revolution and on publication of the CCC's advice on the Sixth Carbon Budget. Amongst the most popular pages are the lists of GSHPA Members to which viewers go to look for installers, consultants, drillers and suppliers.
SAP 10.1 acknowledges grid carbon at 136
SAP 10.1 published on 10 October 2019 acknowledges a grid carbon factor of 136 grams CO2e/kWh. See SAP 10.1.
Scotland backs GSHPs with cash
The Scottish government is backing the installation of GSHPs in social housing with cash: Scotland backs GSHPs with cash
Groundwater Source Heat Pumps
CIBSE has launched a Code of Practice on Groundwater Source Heat Pumps in conjunction with the Heat Pump Association and the GSHPA. The Training & Standards Committee of the GSHPA has made a major input to the document.
UK Housing: fit for the future?
The Climate Change Committee has published its report UK Housing: fit for the future? The CCC concludes that government needs to take urgent actions to decarbonise the heating of the UK housing stock.
Heat Networks Investment Project
Triple Point Heat Networks is now ready to accept applications for the £320m Heat Networks Investment Project for both public sector and private sector grants for new or extended district heating networks in February 2019 on behalf of BEIS.
Four Hottest Years on Record
The last four years have been the four Hottest Years on Record. What are we going to do about it?
Heat Pumps and DSM Seminar
The GSHPA seminar on Heat Pumps and Electricity Demand on 7 November attracted interest from 80 delegates. The presentations are available at Heat Pump DSM Seminar.
Heat Roadmap Europe
The European Heat Pump Association has been involved in the Heat Roadmap Europe project which provides a wealth of statistics on heating and cooling systems across European countries.
Jonathan Marshall of the ECIU Energy Analyst wonders if government should be subsidising coal fired electric generation.
Large Heat Pumps in Europe
The European Heat Pump Association is proud to present its new publication on Large Heat Pumps in Europe, which includes examples of 16 projects showing how heat pumps can be efficient and effective in large projects.
It is interesting that none of the examples is in the UK. However, one of the GSHPA's members has provided ammonia based heat pumps to one of the largest examples shown.
Ground Source Heating & Cooling Guide
The GSHPA Ground Source Heating & Cooling Guide was launched at Ground Source Energy Expo 2017. The original version, written in collaboration with the GSHPA, was first published in 2011 by the Environment Agency to provide information, advice and guidance to prospective users of ground source energy, their consultants and contractors. The guide, which has been significantly updated by the GSHPA, focuses on good practice rather than regulatory requirements.
For your free member copy, please contact email@example.com
Ofgem's Insights - Decarbonisation of Heat
Ofgem has just published its insights into The Decarbonisation of Heat, including the need to focus on "electrification of heating through heat pumps".
10% of UK electricity is used for Cooling
The BRE Study on energy use by Air Conditioning reports that 10% of UK Electricity use is for Air Conditioning and Cooling. However, there is a much better way to provide Renewable Cooling.
Threat to BGS data provision
Following a threat to the funding of the British Geological Survey, the GSHPA sent a questionnaire to its members seeking views of the value of the services at BGS. The results of the GSHPA questionnaire show that nearly all of the members who responded use BGS services regularly and value it highly.
Zero Carbon Homes applies in London
Zero Carbon Homes rules apply in London from 1 October 2016. See Zero Carbon Homes - London.
GSHPA Members Consultation
To ensure the Association is working to achieve the aims of its members a consultation was conducted in the summer of 2016 by Jen Billings in a series of interviews with members. You can read the full report or see a presentation which summarises the results. We are working on refining what we do to more closely aligned with what our members expect. However, this is an on-going process so please feed back to us any further suggestions you have so that we can keep on track.
Surface Water Source Heat Pumps
CIBSE has launched a Code of Practice on Surface Water Source Heat Pumps in conjunction with the Heat Pump Association and the GSHPA. The Training & Standards Committee of the GSHPA has made a major input to the document which is now available to GSHPA members.
A launch party was held on 20 April at Kingston Upon Thames including a seminar: for the slide presentations see CP2 Launch 2016
The GSHPA has launched its Ground Source Heat Pump Manifesto to encourage the new government to stimulate the heat pump market to help achieve the country's commitments under the Climate Change Act: GSHPA Manifesto.
Domestic RHI Biomass rates fall 20%
DECC announced a 20% decrease in RHI for new biomass domestic installations from 10.98p to 8.93 from 1 April 2015. This follows on from the 10% decrease from 12.2 to 10.98p in the previous quarter. See Biomass degressions.
Domestic RHI Biomass rates fall 20% again
DECC announced a further 20% decrease in RHI for new biomass domestic installations from 8.93 to 7.14p from 1 July 2015. See Biomass degressions.
Amber Rudd opens Heat Conference
Amber Rudd MP opened the Heat Conference saying, "We want people to have permanently warmer homes, lower fuel bills and to be reducing their emissions. Renewable heat technologies can deliver all three." She said: "Moving from heat buried deep underground, to the latent heat available in rivers, canals, lakes and the seas that surround us. I'm pleased to announce today a package of actions to drive the deployment of large scale water source heat pumps." See Heat Conference speech.
EHPA writes to David Cameron
23 September 2014
See letter from European Heat Pump Association and others to David Cameron and Ed Davey on the urgency of changing strategy for the implementation of Renewable Heating and Renewable Cooling to reduce our dependency on imported fossil fuels. See: EHPA writes to David Cameron.
DECC publishes Evaluation of non-domestic RHI - 29 August 2014
DECC has published an "independent" evaluation of the non-domestic RHI which concludes that the RHI is stimulating investments in renewables, that installation and operation of renewable has been positive and that biomass boilers have been installed in a wide range of sectors. See interim report on RHI Evaluation.
DECC publishes Water Source Heat Map - 11 August 2014
Ed Davey of DECC has published a "high level water source heat map" of 40 urban rivers in England with the highest potential for water source heat pump use for both renewable heating and renewable cooling. The map identifies areas of high heat demand beside rivers with sufficiently high flow rates.
DECC's vision for decarbonisation of heating involves a number of low carbon technologies. Its modelling shows there is a particularly important role for heat pumps and for heat networks.
DECC is particularly interested in deploying water source heat pumps as part of heat networks projects, where heat pumps provide low carbon and renewable heating to a number of different buildings through district heating networks and heating sharing networks.
See DECC's water source heat map.
Open water heat pump systems work by recovering solar energy stored naturally in river water. Water is abstracted after passing through a filtration process and then passes through high-efficiency heat pumps to harvest the low grade heat in the water before being returned to the river with a temperature change of no more than 3°C.
The Energy Secretary, Ed Davey, has described the development as "game changing" in relation to Britain's need for renewable energy against the backdrop of insecurity in Russia, which supplies much of Europe's gas, and the political row at home over soaring fuel bills.
Andy Davey of DECC came to listen as well as to speak: he was concerned to find if there were barriers to the take-up of ground source energy and if DECC or Ofgem could do more to encourage the adoption of ground source energy which was way behind what DECC had envisaged. This led to a lively exchange of views and a number of proposals from the GSHPA.
MCS Guidance on domestic renewable heating threshholds
MCS has published guidance on how to apply the revised thresholds for MCS installations. These apply for installations since 16 December 2013. Although only individual heating appliances of up to 45 kWth can gain MCS certification, MCS certified installers can design, install and certify systems with a heat demand of up to 70 kWth by using more than one certified appliance. An MCS installer who can demonstrate competency may also install multiple MCS installations of up to 70 kWth within a given property: and it may not be necessary for these multiple areas to be hydraulically separated.
Ofgem opens for Domestic RHI
On 9 April 2014 Ofgem opened its servers for Domestic RHI applications. Six years after the Energy Act 2008, it is possible to make an application to Ofgem to receive RHI for domestic applications to support the costs of renewable energy technologies installed since 15 July 2009. See RHI Domestic. Owners of domestic properties installing ground source heat pumps can now receive rewarding financial returns as well as a green heating system.
Ed Davey promotes heat pumps
See article in the Independent on Sunday published on 23 March: Ed Davey on Heat Pumps.
GSHPA at Ecobuild 4-6 March 2014
Council members of the GSHPA spoke at an Ecobuild Green Energy seminar on Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage and GSHP case studies on Thursday 6 March.
GSHPA on the move
The GSHPA website, like most others, was originally written to be browsed on a desktop. With many people now viewing sites from their mobiles, the site has been retuned to display well on small screens as well as on large ones. You can now view GSHPA more easily "on the move".
RHI rates expected to double
Following the meeting with GSHPA Coucil members in December, DECC issued its Announcement on 21 January 2013.
DECC has confirmed that "evidence suggests there may be differences between actual costs and load factors of installations and the original assumptions used to calculate the current tariffs" clearly indicating that the early assumptions needed revisiting.
The GSHPA evidence submitted supports an increase of tariff rates to 9.4p/kWh.
The DECC announcement goes on to confirm that, "It is DECC's intention that where tariffs increase as a result of this work, installations accredited from today (21 January 2013) would benefit from that increase once the new tariffs come into force".
DECC £6m scheme for social housing
DECC announces a £6m scheme for social housing.
GSHPA meets with Minister
GSHPA Council members met with Greg Barker and DECC officials on 17 December 2012 to address the issue of why 98% of RHI payments had been made to owners of biomass boiler installations. The stated intentions of the RHI are:
- to reduce carbon emissions
- to support innovation
- to support a range of renewable technologies
- and encourage employment in renewable energy companies in the UK
Unfortunately the RHI is failing badly on all these counts - indeed the RHI is currently operating to frustrate these objectives.
The tariff levels for large GSHP installations are currently less than half the rate for biomass boilers and the calculations include major errors in the calculations that supress the GSHP tariffs.
The Minister encouraged officials to accelerate the review of the GSHP tariffs and is expecting to announce that changes in tariffs will to be corrected with an announcement from the Minister in the second week of January.
Ofgem accredits GSHC installations
Although the commercial RHI began on 28 November 2011, it has taken over a year for Ofgem to commernce accreditation for Ground Source Heating and Cooling ("GSHC") installations.
After many months of GSHPA lobbying of DECC and Ofgem, Ofgem wrote to the GSHPA and other stakeholders on 5 December 2012 to say that owners of GSHC systems will be entitled to receive RHI, but at a discounted rate. Owners of systems up to 100kW rated capacity will receive RHI at 72.3% of the RHI rate for ground source heat pumps. Owners of systems over 100kW rated capacity will receive RHI at 64.73% of the RHI rate for ground source heat pumps.
For more see Ofgem starts accrediting GSHC.
EGEC calls for action
The European Geothermal Energy Council has called for an EU action plan on renewable heating and cooling in order to assess the major bottlenecks hindering the further development of ground source energy in Europe: EGEC Press Release.
The EU Energy Commissioner Günther Oettinger says that "geothermal will play an important role in the future energy mix of the EU" and that "we should encourage geothermal development in more and more cities".
Philippe Dumas, Manager at the European Geothermal Energy Council, pointed out that "policy-makers, local authorities and utilities need to be more aware of the full range of geothermal resources available and of their possible applications".
Vertical Borehole Standard
The GSHPA's Vertical Borehole Standard which covers the design, installation and testing of closed-loop vertical boreholes was published in September 2011. The GSHPA's Thermal Pile Standard was published in September 2012.
The MCS Microgeneration Installation Standard for heat pumps, version 3.1, has now been published: MIS 3005 Heat Pump Systems.
The GSHPA has contributed to MIS 3005 and the Environment Agency's Good Practice Guide.
Members of the GSHPA gain publicity from live links to their websites from the Members pages. Members can also help to increase the search rankings of the GSHPA site by providing backlinks to the GSHPA site.
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